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约翰迪尔强鹿柴油机涡轮增压器故障分析
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John Deere约翰迪尔强鹿柴油机涡轮增压器故障分析

CAUTION: After operating engine, allow exhaust

system to cool before removing turbocharger.

IMPORTANT: When cleaning turbocharger, do not

spray directly into compressor cover or

turbine housing. If turbocharger

inspection is required, do not clean

exterior prior to removal. Doing so may

wash away evidence of a potential

failure mode. See TURBOCHARGER

INSPECTION later in this group.)

1. Thoroughly clean exterior of turbocharger and

surrounding area to prevent entry of dirt into the air

intake system during removal.

2. Remove air intake hose and exhaust elbow (shown

removed). Loosen hose clamp (A).

3. Disconnect oil inlet line (B) and oil return pipe (C) from

turbocharger (D).

4. Remove mounting cap screws and nuts and lift

turbocharger from exhaust manifold. Remove stainless

steel gasket.

5. Place turbocharger on a clean flat surface. Cap or plug

all air intake and exhaust openings.

6. Perform turbocharger inspection as described later, if

failure mode has not yet been determined. (See

TURBOCHARGER INSPECTION in this group.)

John Deere约翰迪尔强鹿柴油机涡轮增压器故障分析

Turbocharger Failure Analysis

The following is a guide for diagnosing the cause of

turbocharger failures after removal from the engine.

Problem Possible Cause Suggested Remedy

COMPRESSOR HOUSING INLET DEFECTS

Foreign Object Damage Objects left in intake system. Disassemble and inspect intake system for foreign

objects (this group).

Inspect engine for internal damage.

Leaking and/or defective intake system. Inspect air intake system connections including air

filter; repair as required (this group).

Inspect air intake related engine components.

Compressor Wheel Rub Bearing failure. Determine if engine and/or operator contributed to lack

of lubrication, contaminated lubrication, excessive

temperature, or debris generating engine failure in

progress. Correct as required.

Manufacturing defects. Correct as required (this group).

COMPRESSOR HOUSING OUTLET DEFECTS

Oil and/or Dirt in Housing Restricted air intake system. Inspect and clean air cleaner.

Prolonged periods of low rpm engine Check with operator to confirm conditions. (See

idling. Operator’s Manual.)

Defective oil seal ring. Repair as required (this group).

Restricted oil drain line. Inspect and clear oil drain line as required.

TURBINE HOUSING INLET DEFECTS

Oil in Housing Internal engine failure. Inspect and repair engine as required.

Oil leaking from compressor housing Verify that oil is in compressor housing and refer to

seal. “Compressor Housing Outlet Defects” as listed earlier

in this chart.

Center Wall Deteriorated Excessive operating temperature. Check for restricted air intake.

Check engine for overfueling.

Check injection pump timing.

TURBINE HOUSING OUTLET DEFECTS

Turbine Wheel Rub Bearing failure. Determine if engine and/or operator contributed to lack

of lubrication, contaminated lubrication, excessive

temperature, or debris generating engine failure in

progress. Correct as required.

Manufacturing defect. Correct as required (this group).

Foreign Object Damage Internal engine failure. Inspect and repair engine as required.

Objects left in intake system. Disassemble and inspect air intake system (this

group).

Leaking air intake system. Correct as required (this group).

Oil and/or Excessive Carbon Internal engine failure. Verified by oil in turbine housing. Correct as required.

Turbine seal failure. Inspect for excessive heat from overfueling and/or

restricted air intake.

Prolonged periods of low rpm engine Ask operator to run engine under load or at a higher

idling. rpm (see Operator’s Manual).

Restricted oil drain line. Inspect and clear oil drain line as required.

EXTERNAL CENTER HOUSING AND JOINT DEFECTS

Leaks from Casting Defective casting. Replace turbocharger (this group).

Defective gasket. Verify if leaks are occurring at gasket joints.

Leaks from Joints Loose attaching screws. Tighten to specifications (this group).

Defective gasket. Inspect and repair as required.

INTERNAL CENTER HOUSING DEFECTS

Excessive Carbon Build-Up in Housing Hot engine shutdown. Review proper operation with operator as shown in

or on Shaft operator’s manual.

Excessive operating temperature. Restricted air intake; overfueling or mistimed engine.

Restricted oil drain line. Inspect and clean oil drain lines as required.

Operating engine at high speeds and Idle engine for a few minutes to allow oil to reach

loads immediately after start-up. bearings before applying heavy loads.

Turbocharger Inspection

The following inspection procedure is recommended for

systematic failure analysis of a suspected failed

turbocharger. This procedure will help to identify when a

turbocharger has failed, and why it has failed, so the

primary cause of the failure can be corrected.

Proper diagnosis of a non-failed turbocharger is important

for two reasons. First, identification of a non-failed

turbocharger will lead to further investigation and repair of

the cause of a performance complaint.

Second, proper diagnosis eliminates the unnecessary

expense incurred when a non-failed turbocharger is

replaced.

The recommended inspection steps, which are explained

in detail on following pages, are:

· Compressor Housing Inlet and Compressor Wheel.

· Compressor Housing Outlet.

· Turbine Housing Inlet.

· Turbine Housing Outlet and Turbine Wheel.

· External Center Housing and Joints.

· Perform Axial Bearing End Play Test

NOTE: To enhance the turbocharger inspection, an

inspection sheet (Form No. DF-2280 available

from Distribution Service Center—English only)

can be used that lists the inspection steps in the

proper order and shows potential failure modes

for each step. Check off each step as you

complete the inspection and record any details or

problems obtained during inspection. Retain this

with the work order for future reference.

Compressor Housing Inlet and Compressor Wheel

1. Check compressor inlet and compressor wheel (A) for

foreign object damage.

NOTE: Foreign object damage may be extensive or

minor. In either case, the source of the foreign

object must be found and corrected to eliminate

further damage.

2. Mark findings on your checklist and continue the

inspection.

A—Compressor Wheel

NOTE: You will need a good light source for this check.

3. Check compressor inlet for wheel rub on the housing

(arrow). Look very closely for any score marks on the

housing itself and check the tips of the compressor

wheel blades for damage.

Compressor Housing Outlet

1. Check compressor housing outlet (A). The outlet

should be clean and free of dirt or oil.

2. Mark it on your checklist if dirt or oil is found and

continue the inspection.

A—Compressor Housing Outlet

Turbine Housing Inlet

Check the turbine housing inlet ports (arrow) for oil in

housing, excessive carbon deposit or erosion of center

walls.

NOTE: If the inlet is wet with oil, or has excessive carbon

deposits, an engine problem is likely. Center wall

erosion (cracking or missing pieces), indicates

excessive exhaust temperature.

Turbine Housing Outlet and Turbine Wheel

1. Use a flashlight to look up inside the turbine housing

outlet (A) and check blades (B) for foreign object

damage.

A—Turbine Housing Outlet

B—Blades

2. Inspect the wheel blades and housing for evidence of

wheel rub (arrow). Wheel rub can bend the tips of the

blades with the housing showing wear or damage.

3. Rotate the shaft, using both hands, to check rotation

and clearance. The shaft should turn freely; however,

there may be a slight amount of drag.

IMPORTANT: Use only moderate hand force (3—

4 pounds) on each end of shaft.

4. Next, pull up on the compressor end of the shaft and

press down on the turbine end while rotating shaft.

Neither the compressor wheel nor the turbine wheel

should contact the housing at any point.

NOTE: There will be some “play” because the bearings

inside the center housing are free floating.

External Center Housing and Joints

Visually check the outside of the center housing, all

connections to the compressor, and turbine housing for

oil.

NOTE: If oil is present, make sure it is not coming from a

leak at the oil supply or return line.

IMPORTANT: Before you finalize your conclusion that

the turbocharger has not failed, it is

strongly recommended that the

following procedures of checking radial

bearing clearance and axial bearing

endplay with a dial indicator be

performed. These procedures are not

required if a failure mode has already

been identified.

Perform Axial Bearing End Play Test

This test will give an indication of the condition of the axial

bearing within the center housing and rotating assembly.

1. Mount magnetic base dial indicator so that indicator tip

rests on end of shaft. Preload indicator tip and zero

dial on indicator.

2. Move shaft axially back and forth by hand.

3. Observe and record total dial indicator movement.

Specification

Turbocharger

(AiResearch/Garret)—Axial

Bearing End Play 0.025—0.102 mm

(0.001—0.004 in.)

..........................................................

Turbocharger (CZ)—Axial Bearing

End Play 0.11—0.16 mm

(0.004—0.006 in.)

............................................................................

Turbocharger (Schwitzer)—Axial

Bearing End Play 0.064—0.114 mm

(0.0025—0.0045 in.)

..........................................................

Turbocharger

(BorgWarner/Schwitzer)—Axial

Bearing End Play ..................................... 0.14 mm (0.0055 in.) Maximum

If bearing end play is not within specification, replace

turbocharger.

4. Next, check shaft endplay by moving the shaft back

and forth (white arrows) while rotating. There will be

some endplay but not to the extent that the wheels

contact the housings.

NOTE: These diagnostic procedures will allow you to

determine the condition of the turbocharger. If the

turbocharger has failed, analysis of your

inspection notes should direct you to the specific

areas of the engine to correct the problems

causing the turbocharger failure. See

TURBOCHARGER FAILURE ANALYSIS outlined

earlier in this group. It is not unusual to find that a

turbocharger has not failed. If your turbocharger

passes all the inspections, the problem lies

somewhere else.

Perform Radial Bearing Clearance Test

This test will give an indication of the condition of the

radial bearings within the center housing and rotating

assembly.

NOTE: Prelube center housing bearings prior to

performing radial clearance test. (See PRELUBE

TURBOCHARGER, later in this group.)

AiResearch/Garret Turbocharger

1. Position dial indicator with extension adapter onto

center housing so that tip rests on shaft extending

through oil return cavity.

IMPORTANT: Use only moderate force (3—4 lb) on

each end of the shaft when checking

clearance.

2. Grasp rotating shaft at both ends and move the shaft

toward the indicator then away from the indicator

(arrows) by applying moderate force of 3—4 lb.

3. Observe and record total indicator movement.

Specification

Bearing Clearance............................... 0.08—0.18 mm (0.003—0.007 in.)

4. If total indicator reading is not within specification,

replace turbocharger.

BorgWarner/Schwitzer and CZ Turbochargers

1. Remove compressor cover.

2. Install a dial indicator against end of shaft as shown.

3. Move shaft alternately toward and away from indicator

and record total travel. Compare reading with the

following specification.

Specification

Turbocharger (CZ)—Radial

Bearing Clearance............................... 0.37—0.46 mm (0.015—0.018 in.)

Turbocharger

(BorgWarner/Schwitzer)—Radial

Bearing Clearance.................................... 0.51 mm (0.0200 in.) Maximum

4. If total indicator reading is not within specification,

replace turbocharger.

5. Install compressor cover.

Adjust Turbocharger Wastegate Actuator (If

Equipped)

A—Jam Nut

B—Rod End

C—Retainer Clip

D—Bypass Lever

1. Loosen jam nut (A).

2. Disconnect hose and pressurize actuator to 83 kPa

(.83 bar) (12 psi) and hold at this calibration pressure.

3. Push bypass lever (D) as far as possible toward the

actuator and apply pressure to keep lever in that

position.

IMPORTANT: Twisting or forcing the entire rod in or

out will change the calibration, causing

damage to engine from overboost.

4. Turn rod end (B) in either direction until rod eye can

just be slipped over bypass lever pin. Loosen rod end

an additional half turn, install onto pin and secure with

retainer clip (C). Release pressure on actuator.

5. Pressurize the actuator to 83 kPa (.83 bar) (12 psi).

Measure the end play with a dial indicator, moving the

bypass assembly back and forth in a direction

perpendicular to the actuator rod. End play should be

within specifications listed. If necessary to adjust, set

end play at 0.38 mm (0.015 in.)

Specification

Turbocharger—Actuator End Play 0.05—0.056 mm

(0.002—0.022 in.)

...................................

6. Vary the pressure from 62—83 kPa (.62—.83 bar) (9—

12 psi) a few times to verify smooth and free operation

of the bypass assembly.

7. Attach hose to actuator and secure with hose clamp.

Repair Turbocharger

Turbochargers used on the engines covered in this

manual are available through service parts as a complete

remanufactured assembly only. Individual components for

repair are not available.

Prelube Turbocharger

IMPORTANT: DO NOT spin the rotor assembly with

compressed air. Damage to bearings

can occur when using compressed air.

Fill oil inlet or drain port with clean engine oil and spin

rotating assembly (by hand) to properly lubricate bearings.

If turbocharger is to be stored for an extended period of

time, lubricate internally and install protective covers on all

openings.

John Deere约翰迪尔强鹿柴油机安装涡轮增压器

IMPORTANT: If turbocharger failed because of foreign

material entering the air intake system,

be sure to examine the system and

clean as required to prevent a repeat

failure.

If not done previously, prime (prelube) the turbocharger

rotating assembly prior to mounting turbocharger on

engine. Prelube center housing with clean engine oil

through the oil drain hole. Turn rotating assembly by hand

to lubricate bearings.

IMPORTANT: Turbochargers can be either single or

dual entry. Make sure the appropriate

single or dual gasket is used when

installing turbocharger.

1. Position turbocharger (D) and new stainless steel

gasket onto exhaust manifold. Tighten stud nuts to

specifications.

Specification

Turbocharger-to-Exhaust Manifold

Nuts—Torque .................................................................. 70 N•m (52 lb-ft)

2. Install oil return pipe (C) to turbocharger. Tighten oil

return pipe cap screws to specifications.

Specification

Turbocharger Oil Return Pipe

Cap Screws—Torque ...................................................... 24 N•m (18 lb-ft)

3. Connect turbocharger oil inlet line (B) and tighten to

specifications.

Specification

Turbocharger Oil Inlet Line (At

Turbocharger)—Torque................................................... 24 N•m (18 lb-ft)

Turbocharger Oil Inlet Line (At Oil

Filter Header)—Torque.................................................... 24 N•m (18 lb-ft)

4. Connect air inlet hose-to-turbocharger compressor

housing. Tighten hose clamp (A) on air inlet line to

specifications.

Specification

Turbocharger Air Inlet Hose

Clamp—Torque ................................................ 6 N•m (4.5 lb-ft) (54 lb-in.)

IMPORTANT: Since the greatest suction force occurs

between air cleaner and turbocharger,

ensure that hose connections are tight

to prevent entry of dirt into system.

5. Install exhaust adapter and exhaust elbow. Tighten cap

screws and clamp to specifications.

Specification

Exhaust Adapter-to-Turbocharger

Clamp—Torque ............................................. 7.5 N•m (5.5 lb-ft) (66 lb-in.)

Turbocharger Exhaust Elbow—

Torque ............................................................................. 47 N•m (35 lb-ft)

Turbocharger Break-In

IMPORTANT: A new or repaired turbocharger DOES

NOT have an adequate oil supply for

immediate start-up of engine. Perform

the steps below to prevent damage to

turbocharger bearings.

1. Either push the throttle lever to the “STOP” position,

hold the engine shut-off knob out, or disconnect

electrical wire from injection pump.

IMPORTANT: DO NOT crank engine longer than 30

seconds at a time to avoid damage to

starter motor.

2. Crank engine over with starter motor until oil pressure

gauge needle registers within the “GREEN” zone of

pressure gauge.

3. Start and run engine at low idle while checking oil inlet

and air piping connections for leaks.

Recommendations for Turbocharger Use

IMPORTANT: Should the engine stall when operating

under load, IMMEDIATELY restart the

engine to prevent overheating of

turbocharger parts.

In most cases, turbocharger damage is caused by

improper start-up and shutdown procedures. Always idle

the engine for at least 30 seconds (no load) after start-up

and before shutdown.

John Deere约翰迪尔强鹿柴油机拆卸,检查和安装排气

1. Remove turbocharger (if equipped), exhaust elbow, or

exhaust pipe if desired. Turbocharger can be removed

with exhaust manifold (A). (See REMOVE

TURBOCHARGER, earlier in this group.)

2. Remove exhaust manifold. Two-Valve head have guide

studs (C) to aid in removal.

NOTE: Some engines are assembled with sealant in

production. Replace with gaskets when servicing.

Some exhaust manifolds are equipped with a

one-piece gasket.

3. Remove gasket(s) (B) if equipped.

4. Remove exhaust port sleeves on four-valve head.

5. Inspect sleeves for cracks or wear. Replace as

needed.

6. Clean mating surfaces of cylinder head and exhaust

manifold with cleaning solvent, acetone, or any other

suitable cleaner that will remove sealant, if previously

applied. (Brake Kleen, Ignition Cleaner and Drier are

examples of commercially available solvents that will

remove sealant from flange.) Thoroughly clean

passages in exhaust manifold.

7. Inspect each exhaust manifold for cracks or damage.

Inspect machined mounting surfaces for burrs or other

defects which might prevent gasket(s) from sealing

properly. Replace parts as needed.

8. Install gasket(s) (B) on exhaust manifold.

NOTE: Stainless steel gaskets can be reused if not

damaged. Graphite gaskets must be replaced.

9. Install exhaust port sleeves for four-valve head.

A—Exhaust Manifold

B—Gasket

C—Guide Studs

D—Exhaust Port Sleeve

10. Install exhaust manifold. Use guide studs (C) if

equipped.

11. Apply PT569 NEVER-SEEZâ Compound to cap

screws.

12. Tighten exhaust manifold-to-cylinder head cap screws

to specifications. On 6-cylinder engines, tighten cap

screws on No. 3 and No. 4 cylinders first. On

4-cylinder engines, tighten No. 2 and No. 3

cylinders first.

Specification

Exhaust Manifold-to-Cylinder

Head Cap Screws—Torque ........................................... 70 N•m (52 lb-ft)

Remove and Install Air-to-Air Aftercooler

Refer to machine technical manual for removal,

inspection, and installation procedures.

Remove and Install Air Intake Pipe

NOTE: Configuration of air intake pipe varies by

application. Engines may also be equipped with

an air heater or spacer between intake pipe and

manifold. (See REMOVE AND INSTALL AIR

HEATER next in this group.)

1. If required, disconnect start aid lines or wiring.

2. Remove cap screws (B).

3. Loosen hose clamp (A) and remove air intake pipe.

4. Inspect and repair as required.

5. Install new gasket and air intake pipe. Tighten cap

screws to specifications.

Specification

Air Intake Pipe-to-Cylinder

Head—Torque ................................................................. 70 N•m (52 lb-ft)

6. Tighten hose clamp (A) to specifications.

Specification

Air Intake Pipe Hose Clamp—

Torque .............................................................. 6 N•m (4.5 lb-ft) (54 lb-in.)

7. If required, connect start aid lines or wiring.

John Deere约翰迪尔强鹿柴油机拆卸、检查和安装进气歧管

NOTE: position of fuel filters vary by engine type and

engine application.

1. Remove fuel line (A).

2. Remove two cap screws (B) and remove prefilter (C).

3. Remove twelve cap screws (D) and remove intake

manifold (E).

4. Inspect for cracks or damage. Inspect machined

mounting surfaces for burrs or other defects which

might prevent gasket from sealing properly.

5. Install new gasket and install intake manifold. Tighten

cap screws to specification.

Specification

Intake Manifold Cap Screws—

Torque ............................................................................. 73 N•m (54 lb-ft)

6. Install prefilter.

拆卸和安装空气加热器

NOTE: Figure shows two types of air heaters. One or the

other is used per application.

On later model grid-type air heaters, gasket (B) is

replaced by an O-ring, eliminating the need for

ground wire shown.

1. Disconnect wiring, if required.

2. If machine is equipped with grid-type air heater (A),

remove air intake pipe. (See REMOVE AND INSTALL

AIR INTAKE PIPE in this group.)

3. Remove air heater (A) or (C).

4. Replace parts as required.

5. If equipped with grid-type air heater, install air heater

(A) with new gasket (B) or O-ring.

Coat threads of air heater (C) with LOCTITEâ 592 Pipe

Sealant with TEFLONâ and install.

6. Install air intake pipe if required.

7. Connect wiring, if required.

拆卸和安装起动辅助装置(如果装备)

1. Disconnect starting aid tube (1).

NOTE: When removing nozzle, note the location of red

dot (2) when removing.

2. Remove nozzle holder from air inlet.

3. Clean or replace nozzle holder as required.

4. If removed, install adapter into air inlet tube and torque

to specifications.

Specification

Adapter-to-Air Inlet Tube—Torque.................................. 50 N•m (37 lb-ft)

NOTE: Red dot (2) on nozzle holder must be installed at

the 12 o’clock position, facing the incoming air

flow. Nozzle orifice (3) needs to be in the path of

the air flow to disperse fluid for quick start of

engine.

5. Install nozzle and connect starting aid tube.

1—Starting Aid Tube Nozzle Holder

2—Red Dot for Nozzle Installation

3—Orifice

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